Recent estimates in the United States show that about one in six, or about 17%, of children aged 3 through 17 years have one or more developmental disabilities, such as: Learn more about the number of children in the U.S. with developmental disabilities ». Get more information on FAS at These cause conditions such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome. Treatment typically involves observation, bracing, and surgery and is dependent upon the severity of the curvature. Scoliosis causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. Chapter 4 By: Mrose 2. Birth defects are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. Children develop at their own pace, so it’s impossible to tell exactly when a child will learn a given skill. Philadelphia, Pa, Lea & Febiger, 1989. Degenerative disorders--are conditions that might not be obvious at birth, but cause one or more aspects of health to steadily get worse. In addition, about one in six children in the U.S. have one or more developmental disabilities or delays. Developmental screening is a short test to tell if a child is learning basic skills when he or she should, or if there are delays. Functional birth defects are related to a problem with how a body part or body system works. Cerebral Palsy. Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye-bye” are called developmental milestones. Developmental disabilities include a complex group of disorders that cause physical impairments, intellectual disabilities, speech disorders, and medical conditions. There are two main types of birth defects: structural and functional/developmental. Most developmental disabilities occur before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth because of injury, infection, or other factors. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Each of these signs is give a point value from 0-2. Metabolic Disorders These birth defects affect the body’s metabolism, i.e., the processes involved in building up, breaking, and assimilating the materials required by the body to function properly. The mission of the program is clear. Risk factors for learning disabilities include prematurity, developmental and mental health conditions (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), neurological conditions (brain injury and seizure disorders) and a history of a brain or central nervous system infection (e.g., meningitis). Appropriate prenatal care and early childhood health care are key, as some birth defects in utero are associated with developmental delays, emotional and behavioral problems, and learning disabilities. Disability is common — about 1 in 50 children has a disability. Environmental factors that a woman is exposed to during pregnancy, such as rubella or German measles while pregnant, or using drugs or alcohol during pregnancy. Dyslexia risk factors include: A family history of dyslexia or other learning disabilities Premature birth or low birth weight Exposure during pregnancy to nicotine, drugs, alcohol or infection that may alter brain development in the fetus Helping prevent birth defects and developmental disabilities Challenge The Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) is charged with protecting America’s most vulnerable, including babies, children, and people with blood disorders or disabilities. Some may be fatal. Two common metabolic disorders are phenylketonuria (PKU) and hypothyroidism. Saving Lives, Protecting People, CDC’s tracking of the number and characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder », CDC’s tracking of the number and characteristics of children with cerebral palsy », National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, At least 25% of hearing loss among babies is due to maternal infections during pregnancy, such as, Some of the most common known causes of intellectual disability include.